Outdoor School Journal, April 23-27, 2001

written by Mr. Wigowsky

Captain’s log - April 23, 2001
--written by Mr. Wigowsky, 6th grade teacher

Table of Contents:
1. Day 1 - Monday, April 23rd
- includes group names, interest groups, and daily schedule
2. Day 2 - Tuesday, April 24rd
- includes information about Hancock Station, field study (ecology), paleontology (field techniques), and Birds of Prey Program
3. Day 3 - Wednesday, April 25rd
- includes field study (geology), with hike up to Slanting Leaf Bed (fossils); also, evening program about an environmental forum
4. Day 4 - Thursday, April 26rd
- includes hike up Iron Mountain, and evening program about a Trivia Game
5. Day 5 - Friday, April 27rd
- includes answer to the Cosmic Secret riddle, and final notes about Camp Hancock
Camp Skits
- includes several camp skits copied from the John Hancock Staff Manual of Songs / Skits

6th graders at 91 school arrived for the trip between 7:30 and 8:00. The buses were loaded by 8:15 and the actual departure time was 8:17AM. The bus trip along the Columbia River was wet - it was drizzling lightly. The second bus had to stop at Hood River because one student (Susana K.) was sick. The other two buses met at Celico Park, where the former Celico Falls used to be. A historical marker told of how Indian tribes used to fish at the falls. There is still a section reserved for the Indians and their fishing rights at the park. The third bus finally arrived after a slight detour.

The teachers (Judy and Paul from 91, and Carol from Carus) decided that 11:00 AM was too early for lunch, so it was decided to continue on to the ghost town, where we would eat lunch by 12 noon. Bus #1 had groups boar’s Nest, Owl, and Beavers, totaling 34 (with 4 high school counselors and 1 teacher on board).

We turned off at highway 97 and drove south past the little town of Moro. Then we entered Grass Valley at 11:52A. There was a sign on the south side of town saying, "JOURNEY THROUGH TIME." It was an Oregon Scenic Highway sign.

Arrive at Shaniko, population 25. Former ghost town. Lunch at 12:23PM. Some kids enjoyed the jailhouse, some the old city hall with the old cabin area. A Post Office seemed to be in operation. One little country store served the small town.

Kids ran around the town and ate wherever they could. One incident to report: Student D was pushed by Student Z while they were sitting on a well beside the jail. D seemed to fall into the muddy well backwards, hit his left knee against a sharp rock, and suffered a small gash directly below the kneecap. Paul and Judy washed the bleeding with distilled water and put a band-aid to temporarily stop the bleeding and keep the area clean. Paul found a hydrogen peroxide pad and an iodine pad that he used to disinfect and clean the wound. Further treatment would be given when we arrive at Hancock, about an hour away.

We left the ghost town at 1:02PM. We drove past the town of Antelope, up and down some steep hills and curvy roads. Crossed the John Day River at 1:41P. Enter OMSI John Hancock Station road at 1:44P. Sign nearby said, "John Day Fossil Beds."

Arrive at 1:47PM.

Julia is the leader at Hancock Station
Sheldon, Kyle B., Daniel, A., Rodrigo, Daniel L.
Leaders: Bryan

Travis, Alex, Cameron, Ben B., Nick, John , Zak, Ben S., Jared, Derek S., Keil S., Joel
Leaders: Bruce S., Jordan Pearce

Levi, Derek J., Justin, Luke, Seth, Russell, Caleb, Andy, Chris, Britton, Justin K., Alex B.
Leaders: Lance Stewart

Brooke, Mona, Jennifer, Caitlin, Elizabeth
Leader: Cameo McNeely (Stetson)

Alicia S., Chelsea, Kaila, Sonia, Alyssa, Laura, Courtney, Melissa, Anna V., Anna L., Olga, Vassa
Leader: Nicole Brenneman

Aimee, Ryanne, Renae, Alyssa A., Susanna, Samantha, Ashlee, RayAnna, Lauren
Leader: Megan Emery


Campfire schedule:
Each cabin does their yell every night. The cabin will teach a skit and song on their designated night. Counselors will prepare at least 3-4 other songs to teach the campers along with one counselor skit to be performed on Wed. night. The last song should be a quiet song to get them prepared for quiet time.

Interest groups:
1. Aboriginal Skills: Survival skills and traditions of aboriginal peoples.
2. Aquatic study: students test pH, dissolved oxygen, sample invertebrates and plants and assess the health of a local water system (pond)
3. Climbing Wall: Use of safety equipment to climb a rock wall.
4. Orienteering: Learn about topographic maps and the use of a compass to follow an orienteering course.
5. Paleontological Field Techniques: Use a mock surface excavation to learn the methods used by paleontologists.
6. Team challenge: build trust with activities.

Daily Schedule:
6:15 am Rise for optional morning walk
6:30 am Morning Walk
7:00 am General Camp Wake Up
7:10 am KP duty (rotate groups)
7:30 am Breakfast
8:00 am Cabin clean up, field gear prep
8:30 am Lunch making
9:00 am Field Studies:
Arid Lands Ecology -- groups 1,2,3
Geology/Paleontology -- groups 4,5,6
9:05 am Counselor / Teacher Meeting with Camp leader
2:00 pm Return from field studies; snack
2:15 pm Quiet time in cabins
3:00 pm Class meeting (with teachers)
3:30 pm Interest groups: (rotate groups)
Aboriginal Skills
Aquatic Study
Paleontological Field Techniques
Climbing Wall
Fossil Study
Team Challenge
5:00 pm Recreation
5:45 pm KP duty (rotate groups)
6:00 pm Dinner (Natural Life sighting - sharing)
7:20 pm Evening Program: (1)Birds of Prey;(2)Environmental Forum;(3)Trivia
8:30 pm Campfire (skits, songs, etc.); observational astronomy
9:30 pm Lights out

Monday's Interest Group:
I went on the Aquatic Study hike to a pond. Erin was the OMSI teacher and she found a gopher snake for the kids to look at. It was her first. It was about 3 feet long. When we got to the pond we found all kinds of aquatic life, including a small green frog, some tadpoles, squirmy critters, and others. The students were challenged to find pond life with small green nets, while some students were testing the water, and doing other experiments.

I also looked in on the Fossil Study group and the Team Challenge group. The Team Challenge group was learning how to work with a team, while the Fossil Study group was learning about fossils and making a print on a plaster cast.

I talked with some excited student who came from the aboriginal group.

Dinner: 6:00-6:30
Natural History study: 6:30 - 7:00 (Natural history sighting)
-- saw a two - headed cow (part of bone displays around the camp)
-- a rabbit with big ears (Jack Rabbit and cottontail); cottontail had white fluffy tail; hares were also sighted (difference: jack rabbits can get along on their own faster - they have large back legs to jump faster away from predators)
The Cosmic Secret Puzzle: has to do with Natural Life:
insect eyes, crane, (crane sound came off because the sound was better).
Evening games, evening campfire songs.
Special night: Star Watch. Marlene had a big 10inch telescope (Celestron) by which we would see Jupiter and its four moons (3 aligned to the right and one to the left). Then Judy had her show us the double star of the lower handle of the big dipper.

Tuesday, April 24th
Rise up for morning walk at 6:30 with Josh. About 15 hikers (mainly Peregrine group) set out up Shriker's Hill (overlooking John Day River). We saw three mule deer feeding down the western slope. Josh also pointed out some Western Meadowlark (with the yellow belly), and he talked of bird sounds. We walked up towards the Red Hills, where the iron oxide made the hills reddish-colored. He told us there was some rain last week (about 1 inch). The average yearly rainfall at Hancock Station is about 10 inches. He also pointed out a ranch toward the south (near the John Day River), which had been destroyed in a forest fire.

He showed us the juniper tree and shrubs, which have small dark-blue berries on them. The hike up and down the hills took a half hour. We came down a canyon toward the station.

7:22 The Conch Shell Call to Breakfast.

Sign at Hancock Station:
Welcome to John Day Fossil Bed National Monument. Camp Hancock is located within the monument's boundaries and you are invited to explore the monument during your stay in the area. Established in 1975, John Day Fossil Beds NM provides for the preservation and public enjoyment of an unusually complete and lengthy record of earth history. Fossils found here record life adapting to a changing climate over the past 45 million years. Scientists continue to work in this outdoor laboratory to learn about the geological and biological history of eastern Oregon. Over 14,000 acres are included within the boundaries of the three units of the par -- Clarno, Painted Hills, and Sheep Rock. Each unit reveals a different segment of the record of changing climate, with associated changes in plants and animals documented by their fossil remains.

Rocks in the Clarno Unit were laid down between about 35 and 50 million years ago. Fossil evidence preserved in these rocks reveals an environment quite different from today. The subtropical forest, which once grew here, included such trees as walnuts, figs, laurels, cashews, magnolias and palms. The fossil bones of rhinoceroses, brontotheres, tapirs, alligators, and small four-toed horses have been unearthed in these rocks. Some of these animals were early ancestors of modern species, others have no living descendants.

Painted Hills Unit:
Overlying the deposits at Clarno, the younger rocks of the Painted Hills were laid down between about 28 and 35 million years ago. The red and buff colored deposits are the lower part of the John Day Formation. They are composed of beds of volcanic ash erupted from the ancestral Cascade Range.
The temperate climate of the time supported a hardwood forest of dawn redwoods, alders, oaks, and maples. Traces of these trees can be found as fossil wood and impressions of leaves, which were buried in pond and stream deposits.

Sheep Rock Unit:
Results of more recent volcanic activity can be seen in the Sheep Rock Unit. The striking blue-green outcrops of the upper part of the John Day Formation dominate much of the scenery. Volcanic ash has proven to be an ideal preserver of the bones of animals that flourished here in the open forests and meadows about 22 to 28 million years ago.

Overlying and protecting the soft ash deposits are layer upon layer of Picture Gorge Basalt lava, a part of the Columbia Plateau basalt lava flows.
South and east of Picture Gorge lie deposits of the Mascall and Rattlesnake formations, deposits which which contain the remains of animal and plant life from 15 to 5 million years ago. These fossils record the changes in animal and plant life during the time when forests were dwindling in this area and giving way to grasslands.


8:30 Students pack their own lunches for today's field studies.

It has been decided to take D. (our injured camper) to Madras for stitches to his puncture wound. An aunt from Redmond will pick him up. Ms. Emminger will escort Student D. Hopefully, the doctor will tell him that he can return to camp and there is nothing wrong with his knee. [Note: we find out later that Derek S. will not return]

9:00 Field Study -

John teaches about Ecology (habitat, community, ecosystem)
1. Ecosystems depend on : sun, air, soil, animals, plans
2. Four Laws of Nature
a. Everything is Connected
b. Everything must go somewhere
c. Nature knows best
d. There is no such thing as a free lunch.
On the hike up past the pond (northeast direction), various ecological wonders were pointed out by John:
1. Various plants give off different tastes and smells, like a sage and bitter plant, compared to a juniper. On a sage plant, John pointed out wasp eggs that looked like berries, but were actually a nest of eggs.
2. A mud flow with fossils.
3. Flowers like Phillium (looks like phlox)
4. Insects such as silvertail and stinkbug beetles, some of which we saw under a magnifying glass.
5. We saw a lot of scat: one had hair in it, which probably came from a coyote, a carnivore. Scat, by the way, is a scientific term for the excrement of animals. The students even learned a rhyme to remember the term: It starts with an S, ends with a T, comes out of you and it comes out of me. I know what you're thinking, but don't call it that. Be scientific, and call it ScaT.
6. One of the girls uncovered a large rock and found a scorpion, in the arachnid family. The mother can carry about a hundred babies on her back.
7. We tried to catch a lizard among a bunch of rocks. John was finally able to catch him. He had a blue neck, yellow underneath, a young one. John held him in a gentle position. John thought it was a Western Fence lizard.

We stopped to eat lunch at Indian Canyon under a large juniper tree with a lot of shade.

John showed the group a rope game-puzzle, where they had to figure out the area of a rope circle with a 40 inch diameter. Radius would be 20 inch (squared would be 400 in). 400 times 3.14 would be about 1200 square inches. That would be 1/1000 of an acre.
The goal of the activity would be to throw a rope-circle on the ground and observe/describe all the samples within the circle. Samples would allow the students to figure out what is located in the area.
Group 1: Juniper berries (dried out), one yellow flower, juniper leaves, one small spider, lot of dried out twigs, tiny star-shaped flowers, dry sandy soil. And lots of grassy plants.
Group 2: Rock with a small spider under it, clover-looking red plant, juniper berries laying on the ground, moss, dry juniper twigs, and a piece of scat.
Group 3: Small yarrow plant with three leaves, onion-looking plant (one long stem), yellowish moss, low-lying ground cover plant, and some juniper berries.
Group 4: Reddish plant-flower, bunch of rocks, ant under a rock, and a few tall grass stems.
The area is a modern alluvium, or according to the map: OAL (Quaternary alluvium (modern mixed alluvium). Source: Geologic Map of the Clarno Unit Area. Camp is about 1300 feet.
John named some flowers: Lamatia (red-clover type plant); Valarium with a square stem and white flowers and side by side leaves; cheat grass, and phlox (violet flowers).

3:00 Classroom Review - review field studies of both ecology and geology groups - give time to write in journals and share notes with fellow-students

3:30 Paleontology - Field Techniques

Allows them to figure out things in the field -- study of ancient life
To know what happened before we ever showed up.
Rock sample: rock with sea shells - fossils have to be at least 10,000 years ago.
Probably came from ocean sediment, an area covered by water.
This area used to be a tropical or semi-tropical area because of leaf fossils found in the area; some deciduous leaves. There are fossils here which were semi-tropical and tropical, but the ocean covered the entire area, and the plant life was preserved.
Bone samples: probably at least 35 million years old. From the Clarno formation near the John Day River. Oreodont tooth sample. Ability to find out about an animal by the kind of teeth it had (flat, sharp, molar, etc.), and determining if it was a carnivore or a herbivore.
Materials that are insitu or float: insitu (inside something), or float above the material.
On site location means it's right there (right where it died). Float can be fossils that had rolled down a hill or in a gully.
Jawbone and Skull sample: example of what can be excavated in a total sample plus the stuff that's around it. Value is in the total picture, not just in one single artifact. Predator's eyes go in front, prey in the sides. Things in context are much more valuable than things out of context.
Field study: hillside with scattered bones.

How archaeologists and paleontologists record information.
1. First find the bones in the field.
2. put flag markers to show where the bones are found. Use a compass to find north.
3. Mark and measure a grid to draw a grid where the bones are found (stakes and string need to be used). A1, A2, A3, A4, B2, B3
4. Draw a box 60in. by 60 in. and draw the bone in the box.
5. Draw the measurement of where the bone is within the box.
6. Determine the slope of the site (10-15 degrees).
7. Remove the bone from the site in separate bag and mark what box the bag belongs to.
8. Bags of bones are recorded with names of people who recorded the information for each bone.
9. Bags are stored in separate grid like compartments in a box.

7:20 Birds of Prey Program
Star of tonight's show: Mariah, the Owl (Great Horned Owl)

Mariah was a wounded owl found in the field, and Hancock was asked to take care of her. She had one wing that had a wounded humerus, thus one wing had to be clipped off. She now is a permanent fixture at the station. She eats various meat, and loves snake for dessert.
Feathers are insulation for the bird. They get oxygen when they inhale and when they exhale. She has four chambers in her heart, just like humans. They have a hot body, but they have a good skeletal and circulation system. They are not that intelligent, though. They use their brain to learn from their parents, and their instincts tell her that humans are trouble. All birds are oviparous, egg-layers.
Birds of Prey: there are 417 species of birds of prey. 287 are diurnal (like hawks, eagles, falcons, etc.). 130 are nocturnal (owls, and other night creatures). Some owls are both diurnal and nocturnal. Oregon has 33 species of birds of prey.

Characteristics of birds of prey:
1. Kill with talons (sharp claws). they’re equipped with 4 digits. A bald eagle exerts 400 pounds of pressure when they attack to kill. Hawks (meaning catch in mid-air) are swift catchers. Ospreys use their talons to catch fish, and they actually dive into the water to catch the fish. Vultures use their noses to smell something a mile away. A vulture lifts their wings slightly upward so they can catch the wind currents. Their talons are not for catching food. They are famous for just engulfing food, having a bald head to help kill the bloody bacteria on their head, and are good projectile vomiters as a defense mechanism. Peregrine falcons are the fastest because their wings are long and pointy and they fold them back in such a way as to attack quickly. It flies at 14 g's, straight down at over 200 miles an hour. It breathes through its huge nasal passage, and it punches out its prey (such as duck); then the female helps the male falcon by catching the prey.
2. Fantastic Eyesight. An eagle can see a jackrabbit from up to 2 miles high. When both eyes focus forward, they use binocular vision. They have 5 times the amount of visual cells than humans. Owls can see ultraviolet light.
3. Ears are good, even though you can’t see them. A barn owl can hear a mouse within 30 meters. They gauge distance by cocking one ear upwards and the other downwards. They also use their nose to direct sound toward their ears.
4. Curved or hooked beak. Eagles are a bird of prey that feel they need to eat constantly. They need to keep their body temperature at 111 to 120 degrees. They used that curved beak to sink into the flesh.
5. Sexual Dimorphism. Bald eagles live up to 40 years together. They return to the same nest because it is too much trouble to find another mate. Dimorphism means the female is larger than the male. They don’t care as much about the male getting hurt as the female getting hurt. The female is the one bearing the children and laying the egg. When there’s a pair flying in the sky, the larger one is usually the female and the male is the smaller.
6. Digestion produces pellets (that pop out of the mouth). Underneath the beak is the crop (where she stores the food). The other part is her stomach where the other food is being digested. The pellet is the stuff that has been digested and is like the leftover stuff that she can’t digest. Pellets allow you to see what the bird of prey has been eating. Bird skat is white, because it has urine and other stuff in it.

Wednesday, April 25, 2001
Morning walk with John and group of students.
Get introduced to a Chukker, a grouse or quail like bird. There were quite a few making the "chuck-chuck" deep-throated sounds.
John introduced me to the Fiddleneck plant, with yellow flowers on top, and the desert parsley, which also had yellow clumps of flowers on long stems.
We saw a deer. I watched a Western Meadowlark on top of a tree singing its song.
Field Study at 9:00 to 2:00
Geology / Paleontology Class with Erin
What is Geology? The study of the earth.
3 types of rock: Metamorphic (hard), Igneous (melted), Sedimentary (soft)
Heating and Cooling effects on rock.
A Formation: a layer of rock formed in the same place, approximately at the same time.
A formation can cover several hundred miles, over a period of several million years.
1. Clarno layer, where Camp Hancock Station is
- all hiking areas from the camp go through this layer (semi-tropical before)
2. John Day Formation
- includes Ignimbrite, Rock Wall (temperate before)
3. Columbia River Basalt (basalt rock formed by cracks or fissures which had lava flow out like in massive floods). Supposedly, this happened some eons ago and it happened over and over again.
Hike up Mud Flat trail.

See a raven fly overhead (like a scout). See a new white flower, called Blepharipappas, which has 9 white petals in 3 groups of 3. See a mud flow and a mud spring (with just a tiny bit of water coming out). Popcorn soil.
Rest under a juniper tree (small class study):
Parent Rock -- that’s been eroded -- into Weathered Rock -- which allows plants to grow --then it dies and turns to Duff -- decomposers come, like fungus and bacteria.
Things that can decompose things: bacteria, vultures, fungus, air, water, etc. To enrich the soil (change stuff into nutrients). Cards are handed out to each group of students so they know what sequence they represent.
[Game - each student makes a sound effect to accompany the concepts taught: Parent Rock, Erosion, Weathered Rock, Plants Grow, Duff, Decomposers Bacteria & Fungus].
In the End, Erin leads the entire group in one grand symphony, where each group makes their sound. It may sound like cacophony to some, but it’s music to the ears of a soil conservationist.
Walk past Mammal Quarry, where lots of mammal fossils were found. They will soon be reopening the site for digs.

We saw Flat Mountain in the west. We walked through sedimentary Clarno formation. We saw Slanting Leaf Bed in the north, below Iron Mountain. This is the place we would have lunch. Erin said the place looked like an acorn or an upside down Hershey kiss.
Lunch at the John Day formation (slanting leaf bed), where lots of sedimentary rock and ash fall rock where on the slanted slope. Lots of fossils were there. This place has temperate forest fossils, like maple, and other deciduous trees (like alder).
Fossils formed by ash falling on leaves, leaves decomposed, imprint was left in the ash. The John Day fossils are mostly imprints.
Students look for Metasequoia (leaves) fossils, and others. I found a petrified wood piece. The students were very successful in finding a variety of fossils.

Game: rock, paper, scissors (ecological/geological version)
Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
Igneous breaks down, Sedimentary builds up, Metamorphic wins!
Everyone starts out as flowing lava, then the winner becomes igneous, the winner of igneous goes on to become metamorphic, while the loser goes down to become flowing lava (the start).
Hand motions: flowing lava (hands move in wavy motions); igneous has hands folded like a tepee on top of the head; sedimentary has hands and fingers vibrating back and forth; then the metamorphic has one arm extended up and the other extended down.
The purpose of the game is to show that rocks always keep changing.

Rest stop: (beside a juniper tree)
Lesson on Fossilization:
Fossils at John Day beds were imprints (of maple, alder, etc.).
Other ways of fossilization would be if leaf, animal, or tree got buried under ash or lava.
Footprints are another way that fossilization can occur.
Mud flows can cover a life form and make a fossil.
Things become part of the cellular structure of the minerals around it; living tissue is replaced by minerals, and fossils or petrified wood can be formed.
Some actual living tissue can be found frozen in ice.
A fossil has to be 10,000 years to be considered a fossil.
An artifact, on the other hand, is something man-made. It’s not a fossil.
Red Hill - we put red paint on ourselves.
Nut beds in the Clarno formation. This is where they found the only banana, and some palm trees.
"This shows it used to be a tropical region at one time in the distant past."
Interest Group: Aboriginal Skills
How to survive in nature. Atlatl, spear, bow and arrow, and other Indian weapons / tools for hunting.
How to make a fire: use a bow-type tool, and a piece of leather or hide from a recent kill, put it over a piece of wood, use another round wood on top to create a drill, then rotate the rope-bow to twirl the wood fast for a long while until one of the ashes turns hot. Then put the kindling near the hot ash and get it ignited, adding more wood to keep it going. Indians would not put out their fire too often because it took a long time to start a fire.

A typical Indian tribe would have 150 to 200 people traveling together, if they lived in tepees. In longhouses there could be quite a few families together.
A rabbit stick was used to throw side-armed at rabbits. It was like a boomerang but it didn’t come back.
Indians also had to braid in order to make baskets, blankets, tepee covers, ropes, etc. Arrowheads were made out of a glass-like rock called obsidian.

Field Practice:
The students went out in the grassy field to throw rabbit sticks at a pretend rabbit (soccer ball). Two students would throw the ball back and forth, while the one with the stick would throw the stick side-armed at the moving ball. One student was lucky enough to hit the moving target.

Other students practiced loading a spear onto an atlatl, and then hurling the spear from the atlatl at a target about 140 feet away. One student came close to the target (a red bag), but it did not hit it directly. I tried the atlatl and when I threw it I felt like I was throwing a javelin. It came within about 5 feet of the target (on my first Atlatl throw).


Evening Program:
Panel of Participants --
(1) Bureau of Land Management
(2) Audubon Society - Birds
(3) Fish and Wildlife
(4) Wheeler County Ranchers - Rights (policy of multiple use)
(5) Wasco County Ranchers - Cattle (rights to graze on other side of the river)
(6) County Commissioner - tourism in the area
(7) Recreationalists - their rights
(8) Motor Sports Enthusiasts - rights to use motor sports in the area
(9) Warm Springs Indian Reservation - rights to John Day River

Tables will come up with a plan. The students will come up with a land management plan for the area. In a democracy we work within communities. Everybody gets a little bit of what they want. People want to have their interests heard.

Josh will make a management plan. He will present it to people in authority who will use students views to help decide what to do. The kids have a stake in the future of this place.

Group of Ranchers: Land needed for cattle grazing. No bird watchers (unless permission was granted). Area for different interest groups. Students decide (after much discussion about what land use is, that they should draw up a plan. The plan is to write ideas on a paper, with each rancher participating. The students drew up the plan on the master map and voted on each individual item to make sure the group agreed with the plan. The final map included an area for ranchers, an area for recreation, an area for birdwatching, Indian fishing rights, hunting in the mountains of Wasco County, boating below the highway, and scenic highway on existing highway, plus a trail along the river and in the hills to accommodate hikers, and other sports enthusiasts. This plan was approved by the students as a plan to submit to the council that will meet to decide the issues.

Josh allowed the group ample time to make decisions, and to draw up a plan. Josh let the students know that similar groups all over Oregon and all over the world are making similar decisions to make things happen.

Each group will present their plan:
(1) Fish and Wildlife Department: Cows have access to the river. Restricted area for bird watchers. Rafters can go down. Gravel road for hikers in the mountain. Note: Restricted area is for wildlife preservation and wildlife habitat.
(2) Audubon Society: Bird Section (to protect the Curlew), a fenced area; river for spawning; place for plants, courtesy of Audubon Society; rafting and fishing section; port-a-potties (Tarzan and Jane); motor sports by permit only; trails by the fences.
(3) Wheeler County ranchers: place for the bird, the hunters, recreation, the ranchers, and some land for the county commissioner.
(4) BLM - Bureau of Land Management: give the bird a fenced area; planting grassy area for cattle for area being lost in other places; hikers area; management in Pine Creek for Salmon runs; place for hunters; rafters in bottom half of John Day River; recreationists near the highway (easy access).
(5) Motor-cyclists: turn decision back to BLM (how to use the land); land back to county that belongs to it; plant grass where cattle need it; place for the curlew; road going to hunting and recreation; motor-cyclists up in the mountains (like mountain biking).
(6) Recreationalists: give land back to BLM and turn land into campgrounds; launch sites for boats; protected land for curlew; separate land for Wheeler and Wasco. Access by roads to campgrounds and hiking areas.
(7) County commissioners: Tourist spots along the highway to see the birds; section for free grazing; put aside land for future use; mountains for hikers; rivers for hikers; section for bird reserve.
(8) Wasco County ranchers: hunting in the mountains (fenced area); ranching areas; fenced bird area; fishing area; scenic highway (218) with recreation area off the road (multiple-use parking area); meat needed for meat-eaters, which means cows still need the major area; the other places are hobbies, but ranching is a necessity; river rights for Indians; no water sports, except for fishing.
(9) Warm Springs Reservation: Split up the land so basically everybody gets an equal share of land; fishing in certain areas; motor sports and hikers in an area; road to get to hiking and motor sports; habitat for animals; restore Pine Creek for salmon and fishing for Indians; ranching still there.

Thursday, April 26, 2001
Josh gave us a report on what the council has decided about the Land Management of the area. The council said the Pine Creek and Wild bird Habitat would be protected. The Mountain area would be given to the motor sports enthusiasts. Grazing land in both counties would be set aside for the ranchers. A road would go up to the upper John Day River for boaters, fishermen and recreationalists. The council commended the students for coming up with great plans for managing the area.

Hike up Iron Mountain with Erin and a group of 13 students and 3 chaperones and a principal, Pat Johnson. We started out at 9:15AM. We took the trail up toward Slanting Leaf Bed (fossil area), then veered off to the right (east). We had walked past the Clarno region with ignimtrite (“avalanche of death”), and we were entering the John Day formation area. Here we saw cottonwood trees near a spring. Beside the spring was a sheepherders station with a wooden cabin that had collapsed just last year (2000), after standing for 90 years. Inscriptions were on the cabin to date it. It was a vast sheepherder place, but a great wood-exporting place. Shaniko was the center for the exporting of wool.

The Columbia River basalt region showed slides of iron rock from Iron Mountain, and there were basalt columns to view. The climb through the saddle (space between two hills that we climbed up) was very steep and straight up.

There was a grass widow (pinkish-lavender flower) on the meadow leading up to the level top, which was more like a plateau than a mountain top. The climb was approximately 2,300 feet (starting from 1700 and ending up at 4,000 ft). We arrived at 12:30PM. That means we hiked about 4 miles (some say 3 and a half) in about 3 hours and 15 minutes.

The Columbia River Basalt region at one time stretched across the area from Iron Mountain to Red Rock across the John Day River area. Then the John Day eroded the area. John Day formation is about 42 million, Columbia is about 15 to 20 million years old. The oldest principle in geology is that the newer layers are laid on top of the older layers. So here we were sitting on the newest rocks in the John Day area (BLM land).

On our way down the mountain there were some slippery spots, like the slopes that were steep. Erin was sure to slow down the pace and make the students dig in with their heels and sides of their shoes. We stopped at several shady spots to drink water and rest.

We passed the famous Hancock tree, which was from a tropical region in the distant past. The name of the tree is the “katsurra”, which is a tropical tree now found in China.

We finally came back to the camp at 4:30PM. Rest and recuperation.
7:20 Evening Program: HFS Trivia Game
Subjects: Geology, Ecology, Fossils, Interest Groups, Random.

The “Swedish Lady” asked questions and a panel of 9 people had a chance to answer the question for their table. The students rotated from each table (6 People) to go to the panel to answer questions. The first person to know the answer and bang the plastic glass on the table got a chance to answer first. If that person got the answer right, the table got a point for their table. Then the music started and the people at each table got a chance to dance and celebrate for 20 seconds. When the music stopped, the next contestants came to the table and the next round began. The winner is the one with the most points.

8:30 Campfire program, put on by the OMSI staff. Lots of “repeat after me songs” and various skits. There was a lightning show in the south, about 35-40 miles away. The kids were still active after the show and stayed up later than usual. Certain discipline “situations” arose from late night “antics”, which were dealt with the following morning.

Friday, April 27, 2001
I rose up early to watch the sun rise over John Hancock Field Station on our final day of Outdoor School. I saw a Chukar up close. The clouds were in the same area where the sun was going to come up, but then I was able to see the sun break through the clouds and brighten up the day. The morning was partially overcast, just like the previous day.

Cosmic Secret riddle:
If you can walk, you can dance. If you can talk, you can sing. (Ben B. guessed it).

After breakfast, there was time to clean up the cabins, make sandwiches for lunch, and do special group duties to make sure the camp was clean for the next group.
After morning field studies (special interest groups) from 9:30-11:00, the group got a chance to buy souvenirs from the Hancock store and get autographs from friends, counselors, OMSI teachers and staff. Lot of pictures were taken (individual and group)

By 11:45 we were ready to load the buses and get ready to leave, making sure the students first got enough water to drink and had a chance to take a bathroom break.
At 12:15 we left the John Hancock Field Station.
It was a bittersweet feeling, because we wanted to stay longer and yet felt like it was time to go home.
The buses took the route over Mt. Hood this time. We made a short rest stop at Government Camp at 2:40PM. We were back on the road by 2:50.
We arrived back at the school by 4:30 pm. Our “JOURNEY IN TIME” had come to an end.

John Hancock Camp Skits: (copied from the John Hancock Staff Manual of Songs/Skits)
1. Ugliest Man:
Announce a successful expedition to find the ugliest man on earth, who is standing next to the announcer, covered with a blanket. Explain that no one can look at him and retain their composure. Women faint, babies cry, and grown men run away on sight of him. After this introduction, call several volunteers from the audience to try to look at the ugly man for a full minute. Each comes up, takes a look, and runs offstage, violently sick. Then call up a guest of honor. When he lifts up the blanket, the “ugly” man screams and runs off.

2. Bubble Gum:
A girl is sitting on a chair or bench, very obviously chewing gum. She gets up, removes the gum from her mouth, and places it on the chair or bench. Another girl enters and sits on the gum. As she starts to get up, of course, she is stuck. After a bit of tugging, she finally gets off it, pulls it off herself, and places it back on the chair or bench. Another girl comes in, and the situation repeats itself. Finally, the original girl comes in, excitedly finds her bubble gum, picks it up, and pops it back into her mouth as she exits.

3. Enlarging Machine:
Hang a sheet or blanket in front of the audience. Announce the marvelous invention of an enlarging machine, and ask for objects to be enlarged. A stick is fed into the machine, and out rolls a large log. Next a rock is put in, and a boulder rolls out. A lady approaches with a baby in her arms, stands next to the machine. While searching in her purse, she accidentally drops her baby into the machine. Out runs a giant “baby” who has been previously dressed up and carries its mother offstage with a loud “Mama!”

4. Candy Shop:
One person is sweeping on-stage. Another approaches and asks what she is doing. She replies, “I am sweeping my candy shop. Would you like some?” The second person replies, “This isn’t a candy shop, you don’t have any walls,” and leaves. At this time, the first person asks for volunteers from the audience to act as walls and sets them in the correct places. Once again, she begins sweeping until approached by a “customer.” This time, there are no doors, and volunteers are asked to act. Last, there are no counters, and volunteers kneel in the “store.” Finally, the “customer” approaches the sweeping “owner.” This time, there isn’t any candy. The owner motions to the crowd around her and replies, “What do you mean? Look at all these suckers!”

5. Enlarging Machine:
Hang a sheet or blanket in front of the audience. Announce the marvelous invention of an enlarging machine, and ask for objects to be enlarged. A stick is fed into the machine, and out rolls a large log. Next a rock is put in, and a boulder rolls out. A lady approaches with a baby in her arms, stands next to the machine. While searching in her purse, she accidentally drops her baby into the machine. Out runs a giant “baby” who has been previously dressed up and carries its mother offstage with a loud “Mama!”

6. Good News:
A Sergeant lines up his group, then reports to an officer to get the day’s orders. He salutes the officer, returns to the group, and says: “Orders of the day. We have some good news and some bad news. First, the good news. Today we all get a change of underwear.” Everyone cheers. “Next, the bad news. John, you change with Mark. Scott, you change with Mike....”

6. The Great Doctor:
A patient enters the office of a doctor and indicates that his foot is always shaking uncontrollably. The doctors says, “Just touch the dummy here beside me and the shaking will go away.” As the patient touches the dummy, the shaking foot is transferred to the dummy. The patient thanks the doctor and leaves. Each member of the cabin group enters with some type of shaking/twitching malady, and each case, the doctor tells the patient to touch the dummy. The dummy continues to add each malady to the already shaking foot. The last student enters dressed as a woman about to have a baby. The dummy takes one look at her, screams, “Oh No! Not me!” and runs away.

7. Infant tree:
Runners enter, one after another, and breathlessly announce that the “Infantry” is coming, then run offstage. After a pause, a man dressed in a black cape enters, unveils a small tree seedling, and shows the audience the “infant tree.”

8. Is it Time yet?
a group of people sit on a bench with their legs crossed in the same direction. The person on one end asks his neighbor, “Is it time yet?” That person says, “I don’t know,” and asks the person next to him, and so on down the line. The person on the other end looks at his watch and says, “No,” and that is passed back. The question is passed down two more times, when the “Yes” answer is finally passed back. At that time, everyone sighs with relief and re-crosses their legs in the other direction.

9. J.C. Penny:
One person is lounging around on-stage. Actors one at a time and ask him where he got his shirt, pants, shoes, hat. He tells them all “From J.C. Penny,” and they walk off. When the last person is still there, a man wearing nothing but a towel runs on-stage. The last person asks him, “Who are you?” He replies, “I am J.C. Penny!” Everyone runs off.

10. Real Estate:
One student is a super duper real estate agent trying to sell a customer some land in the country. The most startling feature of this land is the fact that when a word or phrase is shouted, there are seven echoes in return. The customer expressed disbelief, and wants proof. The agent demonstrates by yelling, “Hello!” Members of the cabin group offstage repeat “hello” seven times. The customer counts each one as it is said. The customer tries it him/herself and yells, “BALONEY!” THE OFFSTAGE GROUP RESPONDS, BUT THIS TIME THE CUSTOMER COUNTS ONLY SIX RESPONSES AND CRIES, “AHA!” THAT WAS ONLY SIX! I KNEW THIS LAND WASN’T AS GOOD AS YOU SAID.” THE AGENT INDICATES THAT THIS HAS NEVER HAPPENED BEFORE, AND BEGS TO TRY IT ONE MORE TIME. The agent yells, “________ is a great teacher!” The echoed reply is “Baloney!”

11. Royal Papers:
One person acts like a crabby monarch with two worried attendants. “Bring me my royal papers!” she shouts. The attendants fuss about, then call offstage for some royal papers. An actor comes in with a handful of papers and gives them to the monarch, who tosses them away. “These aren’t my royal papers. Bring me my royal papers!” After the attendants fuss, another person comes on-stage with some rolled-up maps. These aren’t them, either, and the monarch demands a third time. The attendants fuss, and someone comes out with a roll of toilet paper. The monarch is finally happy, and all exit.

12. Sap running through the trees:
The members of a cabin group are trees and are spread out in an area in front of the audience. One student acts as a narrator and takes the “trees” through the seasons of the year.
“In the summer, the trees are in full bloom, swaying gently in the breeze. (Trees sway.) As the summer comes to an end, the fall winds blow harder and the trees begin to lose their leaves. (Trees shake their arms and hands, indicating the shedding of leaves.) As winter approaches, the trees are cold and barren. (Trees shiver and wrap their arms around themselves.) Finally, spring comes, and the buds begin to open once again.” (Closed fists open slowly until the hands are spread.)
At this point, a staff member is called up by the narrator, who asks him to run through the trees. The narrator continues.
“And so we have all witnessed the growing cycle of the trees. Although the year has in some ways been cruel to the trees, it is obvious that the sap is still running through the trees.”